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70s ribosomes –

Ameboid action

Bacteriocidal antibiotic – kills bacteria

Bacteriostatic antibiotic – stops bacteria from growing

Chemoautotrophs – like bacteria, organisms utilizing oxidation reduction reactions and inorganic compounds as their carbon source (CO)

Chemoheterotrophs – like humans, organisms utilizing oxidation reduction reactions and organic compounds as their carbon source (CH)

Chlorophyll – a photosynthetic pigment located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in plant cells. It allows the occurrence of photosynthesis

Chromosomes- visible chromatin

Chromatin – threadlike mass of DNA containing histones


Endocytosis – in eukaryotic cells, physical manipulation of the cell membrane by distending to form psuedopodia that surrounds a substance and bringing it into the cell. Cells with this type of ability is called a macrophage. Types of endocytos are phagocytosis and pinocytosis.

Exocytosis in some eukaryotic cells, exporting substances outside of cell (see endocytosis)

Eukaryotes – a type of cell (see prokaryotes) which has a membrane surrounding its DNA forming what is called a nucleus and other organelles


Erythrocytes – red blood cells

Glycosidic Bond – a bond which shows C-O-C, the link is between the C-O

Granum – a stack of thylakoids enclosed by a thylakoid membrane. It is found in the the chloroplasts of plant cells

Histones – a protein associated with chromatin, which plays a role in packaging nuclear DNA or nucleosomes

Hydrostatic Pressure – water solvent and solute pressure within a cell (see also hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic)

Hypertonic – when the solute concentration is greater in the environment of which the cell resides, which causes water to flow from inside of the cell to the outside of the cell. The result in an anorexic-looking cell due to shrinkage.

Hypotonic – when the solute concentration is greater in the inside of the cell compared to the environment in which the cell resides, which causes water from its surroundings to enter the cell. This result in a fatty cell due to swelling.

Ion channel- a protein that allows the flow of important chemical ions like sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) to flow in and out of the cell. Theses ions are important for neurons.

Isotonic – when the solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration within the cell

Ion channel

Macrophage – a large cell which eats, for example a white blood cell

Messenger RNA (mRNA)


Neurons – cells found in the brain, fires out neurotransmitters or signal through an action potential that is created by an ion gradient. Without ion channels, neurons would not be able to function. Neurotoxins may also block the pathway of the ion channel.


Nuclear envelope – contains phospholipid bilayer semi permeable with nuclear pores controlling selective substances in and out of the cell

Organelles – membrane bound components within a cell with specialized structures and acts like organs which carries out various functions within the cell

Phagocytosis – cell eating

Photosynthesis – a chemical reaction occurring in plant cells that takes in light, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water (H2O) to make a sugar, glucose (C6H12O6), oxygen (O2), and energy (observed as heat and measured in kilocalories or joules)

Phototaxis – movement of a cell towards sunlight

Photoautotrophs – like plants, organisms utilizing light reactions and inorganic compounds as their carbon source (CO)

Photoheterotrophs – like purple nonsulfer bacteria, organisms utilizing light reactions and organic compounds as their carbon source (CH)

Pinocytosis– cell drinking

Pseudopodia– false feet, formation occurs in endocytosis. May also be used for locomotion, with the cell extending a peudopod. (see ameboid action)

Solute– any liquid form within a solution that is being dissolved. The solute is dissolved within the solvent. (ie. salt in water)

Solvent– is the liquid form within a solution that allows the solute to dissolve within it (ie. water dissolving salt)

Transcription – the process in which and RNA polymerase uses a single strand DNA to code for a RNA sequence (mRNA, tRNA, or rRNA). If the series of RNA codes were intended to be translated into a protein, the strand of RNA is considered as mRNA.

Translation – the process done by ribosomes on the rough ER to translate RNA sequence into a series of amino acids which codes for a protein

Peptide – a sequence of amino acid that may become a functional 3D protein after the packaging of the Golgi Apparatus

Phospholipid bilayer

Photosynthetic lamellae – found in prokaryotes, a substitute for chloroplasts, formed by the infoldings of cytoplasmic membranes

Prokaryotes – a type of cell (see eukaryotes) which does not have a nucleus but contains other organelles

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